June 23, 2024

Software Engineering MCQ Question and Answer

Software Engineering
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1.(A). Assume that an ABC company has developed an attendance processing software to automate attendance entry of their organization

i. Identify the phases in SDLC where static testing can be applied and justify your answer.

ii. Identify the phases in SDLC where Dynamic testing can be applied and justify your answer (2+2 Marks]

b. Assume the following code

void greater ()
{
If(a>b)
{
If(a>c)
{
printf(“a is greater n”);
}
else
{
printf(“‘c is greater n”);
}
}
else
{
printf (“a is greater\n”);
}
else
{
printf(“c is greater\n”);
}

If{b>c} {

printf(” b is greater n”);
} else

{

printf(” c is greater\n”);
}
}

i) Write a Flow chart or Flow Graph for the above code

ii) Identify and write the different paths in the flow Graph

iii) Calculate the Cyclometric Complexity of the same ( C(G) Number of simple decisions +1 or Number of enclosed regions+1)

ANS:-Static Testing and Dynamic Testing in SDLC:

i. Static Testing:
Static testing is typically applied during the early phases of the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC), primarily in the Requirements and Design phases. This is because static testing focuses on reviewing and analyzing the software artifacts without executing the code.

Justification:

Requirements Phase: Static testing can be applied to the requirements documentation to identify inconsistencies, ambiguities, and completeness in the requirements. This ensures that the foundation of the software is solid and well-defined.

Design Phase: Static testing can also be used to review the design documents, such as architecture diagrams and system specifications. It helps in identifying design flaws and ensuring that the design aligns with the requirements.

ii. Dynamic Testing:
Dynamic testing involves the execution of the software to assess its behavior, functionality, and performance. It is typically applied in the later phases of the SDLC, mainly during the Implementation and Testing phases.

Justification:

Implementation Phase: Dynamic testing is crucial during this phase, where the actual code is executed to ensure that it functions correctly according to the requirements and design specifications. Unit testing, integration testing, and system testing are examples of dynamic testing activities.

Testing Phase: Dynamic testing continues into the Testing phase with activities like functional testing, regression testing, and performance testing. These tests involve the execution of the software to validate its behavior under various conditions.

b. Code Flow Chart, Paths, and Cyclomatic Complexity:

i. Flow Chart for the Given Code:

plaintext
Copy code
|
v
+—(a > b)—+
| |
v v
(a > c) (printf “c is greater”)
| |
v |
(printf “a is greater”) |
| |
v |
(printf “a is greater”) |
|
v
(b > c) —-> (printf “b is greater”)
|
v
(printf “c is greater”)
ii. Different Paths in the Flow Graph:

a > b → a > c → printf “a is greater”
a > b → a > c → printf “a is greater”
a > b → !a > c → printf “c is greater”
!a > b → b > c → printf “b is greater”
!a > b → !b > c → printf “c is greater”
iii. Cyclomatic Complexity Calculation:
Cyclomatic Complexity (C(G)) = Number of simple decisions + 1
In the given code, there are 2 simple decisions (a > b and b > c).

C(G) = 2 + 1 = 3

+————+
| Start |
+—–|——+
v
+—|—+
| a > b? |
+—|—+
v
+—|—+
| a > c? |
+—|—+
|
v
(a is greater)
|
v
+—|—+
| a > b? |
+—|—+
|
v
(c is greater)
|
v
+—|—+
| b > c? |
+—|—+
|
v
(b is greater)
|
v
(c is greater)


2.(A)After delivery a project it is observed that lots of production defects are raised from user end. Due to this there are lots of escalations.
Explain what might be the problem of getting multiple production defects? Being a project manager what will be your steps to avoid such problem in future?
Ans:-
Multiple production defects after project delivery can be attributed to various factors:

Inadequate Testing: Perhaps the testing phase was rushed or didn’t cover all use cases, leading to undetected issues.
Miscommunication: Misunderstandings between the development team and users about project requirements or expectations.
Changing Requirements: Requirements might have evolved during the project, and these changes weren’t properly managed.
Lack of Documentation: Incomplete or unclear documentation can lead to development and testing gaps.

As a project manager, here’s how to avoid such problems in the future:

Robust Requirements Gathering: Ensure thorough, clear, and well-documented requirements from the start.
Comprehensive Testing: Implement rigorous testing throughout the project, including user acceptance testing.
Change Control: Establish a change control process to manage and document all requirement changes.
Effective Communication: Maintain open lines of communication with users and stakeholders to address concerns and changes promptly.
Post-Implementation Review: Conduct a post-implementation review to learn from mistakes and improve future projects.

2.(B).For the development of new project Agile methodology is used. After completion of the first iteration, during demo it is observed that there are

lots of changes customer is asking to incorporate immediately in the next iteration of the development. How you are going to incorporate all the changes that is coming from the customer end? As per the customer requirements some more functionalities must be develop in the next iteration and you have already planned user stories for the next iteration. How you are going to handle this situation?
ANS:-
Handling changes in Agile when customer requirements evolve after the first iteration can be managed through these steps:

Prioritize Changes: Collaborate with the customer to prioritize the requested changes based on business value and impact.

Adjust User Stories: If necessary, revise or create new user stories for the next iteration to incorporate high-priority changes.

Review Velocity: Assess the team’s velocity to determine if they can handle additional work in the next iteration without compromising quality.

Trade-offs: Discuss trade-offs with the customer, such as deferring less critical changes to a subsequent iteration, to maintain focus and quality.

Iteration Planning: Conduct a new iteration planning meeting with the updated user stories, considering the team’s capacity.

Continuous Communication: Keep the customer and team informed throughout the process to manage expectations and maintain transparency.

By adapting to changing requirements in a controlled and collaborative manner, you can ensure that the project remains aligned with the customer’s evolving needs.


3.(A)During 2019, COVID-19 was spreading very fast, and hence requires both awareness and prevention measures. However, during beginning of 2020 there was outbreak of this virus across the world, which led to the death of many people. Most of the popular Pharmaceutical Manufacturing companies have involved in manufacturing drugs.
As a software project manager, which type of process model will be suitable for the development of healthcare application which helps organize, manage & monitor product quality and streamline the manufacturing process to meet client’s specifications and associated regulatory requirements.

i). Mention and explain the process model which best suits the above case along with the process diagram.
ii). Identify and list all the stakeholders required during requirements gathering.

ANS:-

i) For the development of a healthcare application aimed at organizing, managing, monitoring product quality, and streamlining the manufacturing process to meet client’s specifications and regulatory requirements in the context of pharmaceutical companies during a health crisis like the COVID-19 pandemic, a suitable process model would be the “Agile” approach. Agile is known for its flexibility, adaptability, and collaborative nature, which is crucial when dealing with rapidly changing requirements and the need to respond quickly to unforeseen circumstances.

Here’s a brief explanation of why Agile is a good fit:

Iterative and Incremental: Agile allows for iterative development, where the project is divided into small increments or sprints. This enables frequent reassessment and adaptation, which is vital during a rapidly evolving crisis.

Customer Collaboration: Agile places a strong emphasis on customer collaboration. In this case, the pharmaceutical companies and regulatory bodies can work closely with the development team to ensure that the application aligns with their evolving needs and regulatory requirements.

Responding to Change: Agile is highly responsive to change. Given the unpredictability of a health crisis, being able to change priorities and features quickly is essential.

Continuous Improvement: Agile encourages continuous improvement through retrospectives, which can help refine the manufacturing and quality control processes over time.

Here’s a simplified process diagram for an Agile approach in this context:

markdown
Copy code
1. Initial Planning
– Define high-level goals and requirements.
– Assemble the development team.

2. Sprint Planning
– Break down requirements into smaller tasks.
– Define sprint goals and duration (usually 2-4 weeks).

3. Development & Testing
– Develop application features.
– Conduct continuous testing to ensure quality.

4. Review & Feedback
– Demonstrate completed work to stakeholders.
– Gather feedback for improvements.

5. Iteration
– Repeat steps 2-4 for subsequent sprints.
– Continuously refine and adapt the application.

6. Deployment & Monitoring
– Deploy the application.
– Monitor its performance and quality in real-world use.

7. Regulatory Compliance
– Ensure that the application meets all regulatory requirements.

8. Ongoing Maintenance
– Provide ongoing support and updates as needed.

9. Continuous Improvement
– Use retrospectives to identify areas for improvement.
ii) The stakeholders required during requirements gathering for this healthcare application would typically include:

Pharmaceutical Companies: They provide insights into their specific manufacturing and quality control needs during a health crisis.

Regulatory Bodies: Representatives from relevant regulatory authorities are crucial to ensure compliance with industry standards and regulations.

Healthcare Professionals: Input from healthcare experts can help define the application’s functionality and usability to address real-world healthcare challenges.

End Users: If applicable, the end users of the application, such as quality control personnel or manufacturing managers, should be involved to understand their daily workflow and requirements.

Software Development Team: Developers, testers, and designers will gather requirements to shape the technical aspects of the application.

Project Managers: To oversee the project, timelines, and resource allocation.

Quality Assurance Specialists: To ensure that the application meets the highest quality and safety standards.

Data Security Experts: If the application deals with sensitive health data, experts in data security and privacy must be consulted.

Business Analysts: To bridge the gap between technical requirements and business objectives.

Legal Experts: To address any legal and compliance issues related to data handling and regulatory adherence.

Effective communication and collaboration among these stakeholders are essential for gathering comprehensive and accurate requirements for the healthcare application.

3.(B). ABC University need to migrate from CBCS scheme to NEP Scheme. The transformation has brought in several changes in the course curriculum, administration process, examination conduction and evaluation process as well as teaching learning process.

However, during one of the inspections conducted by XYZ committee, have given a report indicating the need for change in the evaluation and result display sections. You are now asked to modify the existing online evaluation process and release of results. It is pointed to note that report is provided one month prior to the conduction of examination and the term closes in next three months. Propose a solution to this prot by selecting appropriate process model. Explain the process diagram for the proposed process model as a solution and provide justification the same.

ANS:-To address the need for modifying the existing online evaluation process and releasing results for ABC University in response to the report from the XYZ committee, an appropriate process model to consider is the “Iterative and Incremental” model, which is a variation of the Agile approach. This model allows for making changes in a structured and iterative manner, making it suitable for adapting to the specific recommendations from the committee within a limited timeframe.

Here’s a proposed solution with a process diagram and justification:

Initial Assessment:

Gather the XYZ committee’s report and analyze their recommendations thoroughly.
Form a cross-functional team consisting of university staff, IT professionals, and educational experts.
Requirement Gathering and Prioritization:

Identify the specific changes required in the evaluation and result display process.
Prioritize these changes based on their criticality and feasibility.
Sprint Planning:

Divide the project into multiple sprints, each lasting a few weeks.
Plan what changes will be made in each sprint based on the prioritized requirements.
Development and Testing:

Implement the changes identified in each sprint.
Conduct thorough testing to ensure the modifications work correctly and do not disrupt ongoing processes.
Feedback and Review:

Gather feedback from stakeholders, including students, faculty, and administrators.
Review the changes made in the previous sprint and incorporate feedback into subsequent sprints.
Iterate:

Repeat steps 3-5 for each sprint, making incremental improvements with each iteration.
Focus on ensuring that the modifications align with the committee’s recommendations.
Quality Assurance:

Ensure the changes meet quality standards and are robust.
Continuously monitor system performance and user experience.
Deployment:

Deploy the modified evaluation and result display system in a controlled environment for final testing.
User Training:

Train faculty and staff on how to use the updated system effectively.
Release:

Release the modified system for use in the upcoming examination and result processing cycle.
Monitoring and Feedback Loop:

Continuously monitor the system’s performance and gather user feedback.
Incorporate feedback into future sprints to further refine the system.
Justification:

Iterative and Incremental Approach: This model allows for making changes in a phased manner, which is ideal when the university has a limited timeframe (three months) to implement modifications. It ensures that critical changes are addressed first and can be adapted based on ongoing feedback.

Continuous Feedback: The model encourages constant feedback from stakeholders, which is essential for ensuring that the modifications align with the committee’s recommendations and meet the needs of students, faculty, and administrators.

Risk Mitigation: By breaking the project into smaller increments, the university can identify and address issues early in the process, reducing the risk of major disruptions during the examination and result processing cycle.

Flexibility: The model provides flexibility to adjust the scope of changes based on evolving requirements, which is crucial in response to recommendations from external committees like XYZ.

By adopting this Iterative and Incremental model, ABC University can effectively implement the necessary changes to its evaluation and result display process in response to the committee’s report, ensuring a smoother transition from the CBCS scheme to the NEP scheme.


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4.This in a subjective question, hence you have to write your answer in the Text-Field given below.

(A). ABC Software Ltd. is developing a critical software system for a medical device. The system is expected to run continuously for 2000 hours without failure. During testing, it experienced 3 failures. Calculate the Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) and the Failure Rate (A) of the software. Discuss the implications of these metrics in ensuring the reliability of the medical device.
Ans:-

To calculate the Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) and the Failure Rate (Lambda) of the software, you can use the following formulas:

1. MTBF = Total Operating Time / Number of Failures
2. Lambda (Failure Rate) = 1 / MTBF

Given:
– Total Operating Time = 2000 hours
– Number of Failures = 3

Let’s calculate:

1. MTBF = 2000 hours / 3 failures = 666.67 hours (rounded to two decimal places)
2. Lambda (Failure Rate) = 1 / 666.67 hours ≈ 0.0015 failures per hour

Now, let’s discuss the implications of these metrics for ensuring the reliability of the medical device:

1. MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures):
– The MTBF value of 666.67 hours indicates that, on average, the software is expected to run for this duration before experiencing a failure.
– In the context of a medical device, a higher MTBF is desirable because it means the software is more reliable and less likely to fail during operation.
– A higher MTBF can lead to increased patient safety and reduced downtime of the medical device, which is critical in healthcare settings.

2. Failure Rate (Lambda):
– The failure rate (Lambda) of 0.0015 failures per hour represents the software’s likelihood of failing within a one-hour time frame.
– Lower failure rates are preferred in medical devices as they indicate a lower probability of failures occurring over time.
– A low failure rate suggests that the software is reliable and poses minimal risks to patients and healthcare providers.10:18 AM

(B). XYZ Software Company is developing a new mobile app. They want to measure the app’s performance and quality. Suggest three specific product metrics they can use and explain how each metric can help in evaluating the app’s success.
Ans:-

Certainly, measuring the performance and quality of a mobile app is essential for its success. Here are three specific product metrics that XYZ Software Company can use:

1. App Responsiveness:
Metric: Average Response Time
Explanation: This metric measures how quickly the app responds to user interactions, such as taps and swipes. It’s crucial for user satisfaction. Lower response times indicate a more responsive app, providing a smoother user experience. High response times can frustrate users and lead to app abandonment.

2. App Stability:
Metric: Crash Rate
Explanation: This metric tracks the frequency of app crashes. A low crash rate is indicative of a stable app, while a high crash rate suggests instability and a poor user experience. Reducing the crash rate over time through bug fixes and updates is essential for retaining users and maintaining a positive reputation.

3. User Engagement:
Metric: Daily Active Users (DAU) and Monthly Active Users (MAU)
Explanation: These metrics measure user engagement and retention. A high DAU and MAU indicate that users find value in the app and continue to use it regularly. Monitoring these metrics over time helps assess user satisfaction and the app’s long-term success. Additionally, tracking user engagement can aid in making data-driven decisions for feature enhancements and updates.


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5.(A). Select the appropriate process model based on the characteristics of requirements which are as follows. Demonstrate your answer.

(i). Requirements are easily understandable and well defined.

(ii). Unclear user requirement.

(iii). A complex system needs to be built, but basic feature set is available.

(iv).Unfamiliar technology

(v). If project is very small and project face rapid requirement changes.

ANS:- Selecting the appropriate process model for a project depends on its specific characteristics. Let’s analyze each of the given scenarios:

(i) If requirements are easily understandable and well defined, a traditional Waterfall model can be a suitable choice. It follows a sequential approach and is ideal when requirements are stable.

(ii) When dealing with unclear user requirements, an Agile approach, such as Scrum, is recommended. Agile methodologies allow for iterative development and frequent feedback, which can help clarify requirements over time.

(iii) For a complex system with a basic feature set available, consider an Incremental or Spiral model. These models allow for gradual development and refinement of features, which is suitable for complex projects.

(iv) When dealing with unfamiliar technology, a Prototype model is beneficial. It involves creating a prototype to explore and understand the new technology before proceeding with full development.

(v) In the case of a very small project with rapid requirement changes, Agile methodologies like Kanban or Extreme Programming (XP) are effective. They enable flexibility and quick adaptation to changing requirements.

Ultimately, the choice of the process model depends on the project’s unique characteristics and the team’s familiarity with the chosen model. It’s often beneficial to tailor the approach to best fit the project’s needs, and hybrid models can also be considered when multiple characteristics apply simultaneously.

5.(B).ABC software Company wants to find down time in a year of their Web Applications and following are the information they have

Web Application 1

Web Application 2

MTTF

6580

4370

MITR

250

380

Find the down time for Web Application 1 and Web Application 2 and what do you think about stability of website-1 and website-2

ANS:- To find the downtime for Web Application 1 and Web Application 2, you can use the following formulas:

Downtime (D) = MTTF / MITR

For Web Application 1:

Downtime (Web Application 1) = 6580 / 250 = 26.32 hours per year

For Web Application 2:

Downtime (Web Application 2) = 4370 / 380 = 11.50 hours per year

Now, let’s evaluate the stability of both websites:

Web Application 1 has a downtime of approximately 26.32 hours per year. This suggests that it may experience more frequent periods of unavailability compared to Web Application 2.

Web Application 2 has a lower downtime of approximately 11.50 hours per year. This indicates that it is more stable and experiences fewer periods of unavailability compared to Web Application 1.

In summary, Web Application 2 appears to be more stable and reliable in terms of downtime when compared to Web Application 1. However, other factors such as user experience, performance, and security should also be considered when evaluating the overall stability and quality of these web applications.


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